Kupanga magalasi ndi kusanthula zakuthupi

Galasiyo idatengedwa koyambirira kuchokera kulimba kwa miyala ya acidic yomwe idachotsedwa kumapiri. Pafupifupi 3700 BC, Aigupto akale anali atapanga zokongoletsa zamagalasi ndi magalasi osavuta. Panthawiyo, kunali magalasi amitundu yokhayo. Pafupifupi 1000 BC, China idapanga galasi lopanda utoto. M'zaka za zana la 12 AD, magalasi ogulitsa adayamba ndikuyamba kukhala mafakitale. M'zaka za zana la 18, kuti akwaniritse zosowa zakukula kwa ma telescopes, magalasi opangira adapangidwa. Mu 1873, Belgium idapanga galasi lathyathyathya. Mu 1906, United States idapanga galasi lonyamula makina. Kuyambira pamenepo, ndikutukuka kwa magalasi komanso magalasi opanga magalasi osiyanasiyana amagwiritsidwa ntchito motsatizana. Masiku ano, magalasi ndi chinthu chofunikira pamoyo watsiku ndi tsiku, kupanga, ndi sayansi ndi ukadaulo.

饮料瓶-_19

Mtundu wamagalasi nthawi zambiri umagawika galasi la oxide komanso magalasi osakhala a oxide malinga ndi zigawo zikuluzikulu. Pali mitundu yochepa ndi magalasi osakhala a oxide, makamaka galasi la chalcogenide ndi galasi la halide. Anions a galasi la chalcogenide makamaka sulfa, selenium, tellurium, ndi zina zambiri, zomwe zimatha kudula kuwala kwakanthawi kochepa ndikudutsa chikaso, kuwala kofiira, ndi kuwala kwapafupi komanso kutali. Ili ndi kukana kotsika ndipo imasintha ndi kukumbukira zinthu. Galasi yamagalasi imakhala ndi index yotsika yotsika komanso kufalikira kotsika, ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati galasi lowonera.

主图2

Galasi ya oxide imagawika galasi ya silicate, galasi la borate, galasi la phosphate ndi zina zotero. Galasi losalala limatanthauza galasi lomwe chigawo chake chachikulu ndi SiO 2, chomwe chili ndi mitundu yambiri ndikugwiritsa ntchito kwambiri. Nthawi zambiri molingana ndi mitundu ina ya SiO 2 ndi alkali chitsulo ndi zamchere zamchere zapadziko lapansi zamagalasi, zimagawidwa: into Galasi ya Quartz. SiO 2 okhutira kuposa 99,5%, otsika matenthedwe kuwonjezeka koyefishienti, mkulu kutentha kukana, bata wabwino mankhwala, ultraviolet kuwala ndi infuraredi kuwala kufala, kutentha kwambiri limatsogolera, mkulu mamasukidwe akayendedwe, ndi akamaumba zovuta. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri kuma semiconductors, magetsi opangira magetsi, kulumikizana kwamawonekedwe, lasers ndi matekinoloje ena ndi zida zamagetsi. GlassGalasi lalikulu la silika. Zomwe zili mu SiO 2 zili pafupifupi 96%, ndipo mawonekedwe ake ndi ofanana ndi magalasi a quartz. Glass Soda laimu galasi. Lili ndi SiO 2 komanso lili ndi 15% Na 2 O ndi 16% CaO. Ndi yotsika mtengo, yosavuta kupanga, yoyenera kupanga zikuluzikulu, ndipo zotsatira zake zimapanga 90% yamagalasi othandiza. Itha kupanga mitsuko yamagalasi, galasi lathyathyathya, ziwiya, mababu oyatsa, ndi zina zambiri. Zazikuluzikulu ndi SiO 2 ndi PbO, omwe ali ndi index yotsitsimula kwambiri komanso kukana kwamphamvu kwambiri, ndipo amakhala ndi chinyezi chabwino ndi zitsulo. Zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga mababu, zingwe zopangira zingwe, crystalline glassware, galasi lamwala wonyezimira, ndi zina zambiri. Galasi lotsogolera lomwe lili ndi PbO yambiri imatha kuletsa ma X-ray ndi ma γ-ray. Glass galasi Aluminosilicate. Ndi SiO 2 ndi Al 2 O 3 ndizofunikira kwambiri, imakhala ndi kutentha kwambiri ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito kupangira mababu, ma thermometers otentha kwambiri a magalasi, machubu oyaka moto ndi ulusi wamagalasi. GlassBalosilicate galasi. Ndi SiO 2 ndi B 2 O 3 monga zigawo zikuluzikulu, imakhala ndi kutentha kwabwino komanso kukhazikika kwamankhwala. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito popangira ziwiya zophikira, zida za labotale, magalasi azitsulo, ndi zina zotero. Magalasi a Borate amapangidwa ndi B 2 O 3, amatentha kwambiri, ndipo amatha kuthana ndi dzimbiri ndi sodium. Galasi la borate lomwe lili ndi zinthu zapadziko lapansi zomwe zili ndi index yayitali kwambiri komanso kufalikira pang'ono. Ndi mtundu watsopano wamagalasi owoneka bwino. Galasi ya phosphate imagwiritsa ntchito P 2 O 5 ngati gawo lalikulu, ili ndi index yotsika yotsika komanso kufalikira pang'ono, ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga zida.

饮料瓶-_17

Kuphatikiza apo, galasi limagawika galasi lolimba, galasi lopaka (mwachitsanzo, galasi la thovu, lokhala ndi pore pafupifupi 40, yogwiritsidwa ntchito kuthira mchere m'madzi, kusefera kwa ma virus, ndi zina zambiri) malingana ndi magwiridwe antchito, magalasi oyenda (omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati ma elekitirodi ndi ndege zenera lakutsogolo), magalasi-ziwiya zadothi, galasi la Opal (logwiritsa ntchito zida zowunikira ndi zinthu zokongoletsera, ndi zina zambiri) ndi galasi lopanda pake (logwiritsidwa ntchito ngati galasi lachitseko ndi zenera), ndi zina zambiri.

Njira yopangira Zida zopangira magalasi ndizopanga magalasi, kusintha kwa magalasi ndi magalasi, ndipo zina zonse ndizothandiza. Zipangizo zazikuluzikulu zimatanthawuza ma oxides omwe amalowetsedwa mugalasi kuti apange netiweki, ma oxide apakatikati ndi ma oxides ochezera; Zida zopangira zophatikizira zimaphatikizapo zowunikira, zotulutsa, opacifiers, zonunkhira, zodzikongoletsera, zowonjezera ndi othandizira othandizira.

Njira zopangira magalasi zimaphatikizapo: reKukonzekera kale zinthu zopangira. Zipangizo zopindika zimaphwanyidwa, zopangira zonyowa zauma, ndipo zopangira zachitsulo zimakonzedwa kuti zichotse chitsulo kuti zitsimikizire kuti galasi ndi labwino. Kukonzekera kwa zida zamagulu. Kusungunuka. Magalasi a galasi amatenthedwa ndi kutentha kwakukulu mu uvuni wamatangi kapena mu uvuni wopangira kuti apange yunifolomu, yopanda madzi galasi lomwe limakwaniritsa zomwe zimafunikira. ④Kupanga. Pangani magalasi amadzimadzi pazinthu zofunikira, monga mbale zosanjikiza, ziwiya zosiyanasiyana, ndi zina zambiri. Kupyola annealing, kuzimitsa ndi njira zina, kupsinjika kwamkati, kupatukana kwa gawo kapena crystallization ya galasi kumatha kuthetsedwa kapena kupangidwa, ndipo mawonekedwe a galasi amatha kusintha.


Post nthawi: Jun-03-2019